ISSN: 1139-8736
Depósito Legal: B-48039-2000

2.3. The Two-way typology

2.3.1. Verb- and satellite-framed languages

Talmy refined the typology in subsequent work (1991). Instead of looking at it from the perspective of the lexicalizations in the verb, a constructional approach is taken. The focus is now on which element expresses the directed motion, that is, the path, which according to Talmy is the framing event or "core schema". The three-way typology becomes now two-way. Languages express the framing event in the verb or in some other element accompanying the verb, the satellite to the verb. Talmy states it as follows (1991: 486):

Languages that characteristically map the core schema into the verb will be said to have a framing verb and to be verb-framed languages. Included among such languages are Romance, Semitic, Japanese, Tamil, Polynesian, most Bantu, most Mayan, Nez Perce, and Caddo. On the other hand, languages that characteristically map the core schema onto the satellite will be said to have a framing satellite and to be satellite-framed languages, and included among them are most Indo-European minus Romance, Finno-Ugric, Chinese, Ojibwa and Warlpiri.
Putting the two typologies together, the lexical and the constructional, path-type languages are verb-framed and both manner and figure-type languages are satellite-framed.
Again, Talmy illustrates the typology with contrasting English and Spanish examples: (488-89)1
(2.25) A. Non-Agentive.
1. Supporting-relation: Manner
    [the bottle MOVED in to the cave] DURING-WHICH [it floated]
    Eng: The bottle floated into the cave
    Spn: La botella entró flotando a la cueva.
2. Supporting-relation: Cause
    [the bone MOVED out from its socket] AS-A-RESULT-OF [(something) pulled on it]
    Eng: The bone pulled out of its socket.
    Spn: El hueso se salió de su sitio de un tirón.

(2.26) B. Agentive
1. Supporting-relation: Manner
    [I MOVED the keg out of the storeroom] DURING-WHICH [I rolled it]
    Eng: I rolled the keg out of the storeroom
    Spn: Saqué el barril de la bodega rodándolo
2. Supporting-relation: Cause
    [I MOVED the ball in to the box] BY [I kicked it]
    Eng: I kicked the ball into the box.
    Spn: Metí la pelota a [sic] la caja de una patada
    [I MOVED the door TO POSITION-ACROSS-OPENING] BY [I kicked it]
    Eng: I kicked the door shut.
    Spn: Cerré la puerta de una patada.

Talmy interprets the last example as movement across an opening, but it could have also been read as a case of change of state.


1  Talmy points out once more (see 2.2.2 above) that English also has Path verbs, “but their use is generally less colloquial and they are largely borrowed from Romance languages, where they are the characteristic type: enter, exit, ascend, descend, pass, cross, traverse, circle, return, arrive, advance, join, separate” (489).

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ISSN: 1139-8736
Depósito Legal: B-48039-2000