Depósito Legal: B-48039-2000
6.1. English Verbs in Directed Motion Sentences
An important piece of evidence in favor of an alternative to the lexicalist or projectionist view comes from the wide range and large number of verbs that can appear taking a directional phrase and forming directed motion sentences in English. From this evidence it can be argued that, instead of being the meaning of the verb the one determining the argument structure of the sentence, the verb simply occupies the syntactically necessary verbal position. The directional construction would then determine the overall shape and meaning of this type of sentence.
The classes of verbs that follow are taken from Levin’s (1993) classification of English verbs and its alternations. Levin (1993: 105-6) lists five classes of nondirected verbs as susceptible to appear with directional phrases, namely: verbs of sound emission, Run verbs, renamed as ‘Agentive Verbs of Manner of Motion’ in Levin and Rappaport Hovav (1995: 282), Waltz verbs, verbs of body-internal motion, and Push/Pull verbs. But as can be observed below, there are many more classes and verbs that can take a directional phrase.
The largest class is the verbs of manner of motion (class number 51.3 in Levin 1993). Levin distinguishes two sub-classes: Roll verbs, and Run verbs:1
(6.1) Roll Verbs (Levin 1993: 51.3.1: 264-65)bounce, drift, drop, float, glide, move, roll, slide, swing
Motion Around an Axis: coil, revolve, rotate, spin, turn, twirl, twist, whirl, wind.
(6.2) a motley viper that writhed out of the grave of your wardrobe ("The Rag Rug" New Yorker Aug. 1996)
(6.3) Agentive Verbs of Manner of Motion: (Levin 1993: 51.3.2: 265-66)amble, backpack, bolt, bounce, bound, bowl, canter, carom, cavort, charge, clamber, climb, clump, coast, crawl, creep, dart, dash, dodder, drift , file, flit float, fly, frolic, gallop, gambol, glide, goosestep, hasten, hike, hobble, hop, hurry, hurtle, inch, jog, journey, jump, leap, limp, lollop, lope, lumber, lurch, march, meander, mince, mosey, nip, pad, parade, perambulate, plod, prance, promenade, prowl, race, ramble, roam, roll, romp, rove, run, rush, sashay, saunter, scamper, scoot, scram, scramble, scud, scurry, scutter, scuttle, shamble, shuffle, sidle, skedaddle, skip, skitter, skulk, sleepwalk, slide, slink, slither, slog, slouch, sneak, somersault, speed, stagger, stomp, stray, streak, stride, stroll, strut, stumble, stump, swagger, sweep, swim, tack, tear, tiptoe, toddle, totter, traipse, tramp, travel, trek, troop, trot, trudge, trundle, vault, waddle, wade, walk, wander, whiz, zigzag, zoom.
(6.4)barge, blow, break, burn, cruise, crush, drop, leapfrog, sag, schuss, scorch, scrape, scuff, shin, shoot, shove, shuttle, slip, snake, spank, spring, sprint, stamp, steal, steam, steer, step, storm, stream, struggle, surge, swing, throng, thrust, tobbogan, toil, tootle, whirl.
(6.5) Verbs of Motion using a vehicle: (Levin 1993: 51.4: 267-68)Vehicle names (51.4.1):
balloon, bicycle, bike, boat, bobsled, bus, cab, canoe, caravan, chariot, coach, cycle, dogsled, ferry, gondola, helicopter, jeep, jet, kayak, moped, motor, motorbike, motorcycle, parachute, punt, raft, rickshaw, rocket, skate, skateboard, ski, sled, sledge, sleigh, taxi, toboggan, tram, trolley, yacht.
Verbs that are not vehicle names (51.4.2):
cruise, drive, fly, oar, paddle, pedal, ride, row, sail, tack.
(6.6) Instrument Verbs:auto, +sports-car, caravan, +trailer, +tractor, +cablecar, +tram, +trolley, +streetcar, scooter, motorcycle, bicycle, bike, cycle, +tricycle, +van, +cab, taxi, +jitney, +Greyhound, +Buick, +V-8, +limousine, +elevator, +escalator (somewhere); boat, +sailboat, +steamship, +Queen Mary, yacht, punt, +flatboat, +lighter, barge, raft, canoe, kayak (somewhere); jet, +747, +Concorde, sailplane, +glider, helicopter, +chopper, +Zeppelin, balloon, parachute, +TWA, +UA, +Air California, rocket (somewhere); sleigh, sledge, sled, ski, +t-bar, skate, roller-skate, +pogo-stick, +skateboard, water-ski, surfboard, snowshoe (somewhere); pole, +barge-pole, paddle, +oar, scull, +ski-pole, +ice-pick, +pickax, pedal (somewhere); +rope, +crampon (one's way somewhere); sail, wing, steam, motor (somewhere); +subway to 64th Street, +BART to Berkeley, thumb to LA, surf onto shore, +whirlwind across the US, +guitar one's way across the US, +the police sirened up to the accident; (tr.) +ambulance, truck, bus, +trailer, wagon, cart, +pushcart, +barrow, +stretcher, wheelbarrow (something somewhere); telegraph, telephone, wire, cable, +long-distance, +postcard, +semaphore, +flag, radio, beam (a message somewhere); +satellite (news); paddle the canoe, pedal the bicycle; wheel the patient into surgery, sail the boat to LA, pipe the oil to Oregon, +tanker the oil to the US.
(6.7) I presented the bristle end of a broom to the back end of the pony, which exoceted up the ramp into the trailer.
(6.8) Verbs from names of animals:squirrel away the money, chicken out of a fight, snake through the cars, hare down the road, rabbit along at 90 miles an hour, moused along the parkside, cat it up the waterpipe.
(6.9) Waltz Verbs (Levin 1993: 51.5: 268-9)boogie, bop, cancan, clog, conga, dance, foxtrot, jig, jitterbug, jive, pirouette, polka, quickstep, rumba, samba, shuffle, squaredance, tango, tapdance, waltz.
(6.10) The couple waltzed to the window.
(6.11) Verbs of Body-Internal Motion (Levin 1993: 49: 261)buck, fidget, flap, gyrate, kick, rock, squirm, sway, teeter, totter, twitch, waggle, wiggle, wobble, wriggle.
(6.12) Sylvia wriggled out of her seat(6.13) The sick man wobbled down the stairs
(6.14) Push/Pull Verbs: (Levin 1993: 12: 137)?draw, heave, jerk, press, pull, push, shove, ?thrust, tug, yank.
(6.15) Leona pushed the cart to the market.
(6.16) Verbs of throwing (Levin 1993: 17: 146)bash, bat, bunt, ?cast, catapult, chuck, fire (projectile), flick, fling, flip, hit (ball), hurl, kick (ball), knock, lob, ?loft, nudge, pass, pitch, punt, shoot (projectile), shove, slam, slap, sling, smash, tap, throw, tip, toss.
(6.17) a. Steve tossed the ball over the fence/into the garden
b. Steve tossed the ball from the tree to the gate.
(6.18) a. John threw the book to Bill / John threw Bill the bookb. John flung the book to Bill / John flung Bill the book
c. John flicked the ball to Bill / John flicked Bill the ball
d. John flicked the coin to Bill / John flicked Bill the coin
(6.19) a. John pulled the trunk to Bill / * John pulled Bill the trunkb. John pushed the trunk to Bill / * John pushed Bill the trunk
c. John dragged the sack to Bill / * John dragged Bill the sack
d. John schlepped the box to Bill /* John schlepped Bill the box
(6.20) Send Verbs (11.1)airmail, convey, deliver, dispatch, express, FedEx, forward, hand, mail, pass, port, post, return, send, shift, ship, shunt, slip, smuggle, sneak, transfer, transport, UPS.
(6.21) Slide Verbs (11.2)
bounce, float, move, roll, slide.
(6.22) bring, take. (11.3)
(6.23) Carry Verbs (11.4)
carry, drag, haul, heave, heft, hoist, kick, lug, pull, push, schlep, shove, tote, tow, tug.
(6.24) Drive Verbs (11.5)
barge, bus, cart, drive, ferry, fly, row, shuttle, truck, wheel, wire (money).
(6.25) a. Amanda carried/[sent]/drove the package from Boston to New York.b. Carla slid the books across the table.
c. Nora brought the book from home.
(6.26) Chase Verbs (Levin 1993: 51.6: 269)chase, follow, pursue, shadow, tail, track, trail.
(6.27) Accompany Verbs (Levin 1993: 51.7: 270)
accompany, conduct, escort, guide, lead, shepherd.
(6.28) Jackie chased the thief down the street.(6.29) Jackie accompanied Rose to the store.
(6.30) Meander Verbs (Levin 1993: 47.7: 256)cascade, climb, crawl, cut, drop, go, meander, plunge, run, straggle, stretch, sweep, tumble, turn, twist, wander, weave, wind.
(6.31) The river runs from the lake to the sea.(6.32) The stream winds/twists/crawls through the valley.
(6.33) Funnel Verbs (Levin 1993: 9.3: 113)bang, channel, dip, dump, funnel, hammer, ladle, pound, push, rake, ram, scoop, scrape, shake, shovel, siphon, spoon, squeeze, squish, squash, sweep, tuck, wad, wedge, wipe, wring.
(6.34) Verbs of Putting with a Specified Direction (Levin 1993: 9.4: 114)drop, hoist, lift, lower, raise.
(6.35) I lifted the book onto the table/out of the box.(6.36) I lifted the books from the floor to the table.
(6.37) Pour Verbs (Levin 1993: 9.5: 115)Dribble, drip, pour, slop, slosh, spew, spill, spurt.
(6.38) Tamara poured water into the bowl/over the flowers.(6.39) Tamara poured water from/out of the pitcher.
(6.40) Spray/Load Verbs (Levin 1993: 9.7: 117-8)brush, cram, crowd, cultivate, dab, daub, drape, drizzle, dust, hang, heap, inject, jam, load, mound, pack, pile, plant, plaster, ?prick, pump, rub, scatter, seed, settle, sew, shower, slather, smear, smudge, sow, spatter, splash, splatter, spray, spread, sprinkle, spritz, squirt, stack, stick, stock, strew, string, stuff, swab, ?vest, ?wash, wrap.
(6.41) a. Jessica loaded boxes onto/into/under the wagon.
b. Jessica sprayed paint onto/under/over the table.
(6.42) a. Jessica loaded boxes on the wagon.b. Jessica loaded the wagon with boxes.
(6.43) a. Jessica sprayed paint on the wall.b. Jessica sprayed the wall with paint.
(6.44) Verbs of sound emission (119 in Levin 1993: 43.2: 234-5):babble, bang, beat, beep, bellow, blare, blast, blat, bleat, boom, bubble, burble, burr, buzz, chatter, chime, chink, chir, chitter, chug, clack, clang, clank, clap, clash, clatter, click, cling, clink, clomp, clump, clunk, crack, crackle, crash, creak, crepitate, crunch, cry, ding, dong, explode, fizz, fizzle, groan, growl, gurgle, hiss, hoot, howl, hum, jangle, jingle, knell, knock, lilt, moan, murmur, patter, peal, ping, pink, pipe, plink, plonk, plop, plunk, pop, purr, putter, rap, rasp, rattle, ring, roar, roll, rumble, rustle, scream, screech, shriek, shrill, sing, sizzle, snap, splash, splutter, sputter, squawk, squeak, squeal, squelch, strike, swish, swoosh, thrum, thud, thump, thunder, thunk, tick, ting, tinkle, toll, tootle, trill, trumpet, twang, ululate, vroom, wail, wheeze, whine, whir, whish, whistle, whoosh, whump, zing.
(6.45) * Mary whistled into the room. (with the meaning that she was whistling while she entered the room)
(6.46) The bullet whistled into the room.
(6.47) a. . . . the elevator wheezed upward.b. At that moment, a flatbed track bearing a load of steel rumbled through the gate.
c. The kettle clashed across the metal grid.
b. * She shouted down the street.
(cf. She shouted her way down the street.)
c. *The frogs croaked to the pond.
(cf. The frogs croaked their way to the pond)
(6.50) We started into/across/ out of the room.
(6.51) I will let you into my apartment.
(6.52) She asked me out of her apartment
(6.53) She invited me up into her apartment.
(6.54) I will help you out of the building.
(6.55) I saw them out of the house
(6.56) They continued into town.
(6.57) He hesitated towards the door of the cabin. (OED)
(6.58) The organ played the congregation out (Collins English/Spanish Dictionary)
(6.59) I must to England now
(6.60) a. I made steadily but slowly towards them.b. Let us make home the best we can.
(6.61) He slept the whole state of Nebraska away.
1 The reference to the class will be given with both Levin’s (1993) class and page numbers.
Depósito Legal: B-48039-2000